What is the abbreviation of HIA? Decoding says: limited health opportunities. This category includes persons who have defects in development, both physically and psychologically. The phrase "children with HIA" means some deviations in the formation of the child, if necessary, creating special conditions for life.
Categories of children with limited health
- with a disorder of behavior and communication;
- with hearing impairment;
- with visual impairment;
- with speech dysfunctions;
- with changes in the musculoskeletal system;
- with the backwardness of mental development;
- with a delay in mental development;
- complex violations.
Children with HIA, their types, provide correctional training schemes, with which the child can get rid of a defect or significantly reduce its impact. So, for example, when working with children with visual impairments, special developing computer games are used that help improve the perception of this analyzer (labyrinths, Schulte tables and others).
Principles of training
Working with a child with HIA is incredibly painstaking and requires a lot of patience. Each variant of the violation requires its development program, the main principles of which are:
1. Psychological safety.
2. Assistance in adaptation to environmental conditions.
3. Unity of joint activities.
4. Motivation of the child to the learning process.
The initial stage of education includes cooperation with the educator, increased interest in performing various tasks. The secondary school should strive to form a civil and moral position, as well as to develop creative abilities. We must not forget about the impact on family development of children with HIA of family education, which plays a major role in the formation of the individual.
It is no secret that the process of becoming an individual includes the unity of systems of socio-cultural and biological factors. Atypical development has a primary defect, which was caused by biological circumstances. It, in turn, forms secondary changes that have arisen on the pathological environment. For example, the primary defect is hearing loss, and secondary - the dumbness that has come. Studying the relationship of primary and subsequent changes, the educator LS Vygotsky advanced a provision which states that the further the primary defect is separated from secondary symptoms, the more successful the correction of the latter will be. For example, the development of a child with HIA is affected by four factors: the type of violation, the quality, degree and timing of the occurrence of the underlying disorder, and environmental conditions.
With the correct and timely development of the child, many deviations in further development can be significantly mitigated. Education of children with HIA must be of high quality. At present, there is an increase in the number of children with severe disabilities, but along with this, thanks to the use of the latest equipment, modern corrective programs, many students reach the desired level of development in their age category.
1. Absence in the educational institution of the necessary technological infrastructure, software and hardware.
2. Lack of necessary conditions, oriented to joint educational activities.
Thus, the creation of a "barrier-free" learning environment is still a problem.
Education for All
1. High adaptation to the life and health of students.
2. Rapid updating of methodological support.
3. The ability to quickly obtain additional information.
4. Development of self-organization and self-reliance.
5. Opportunity to get help in in-depth study of the subject.
This form is able to solve the problem of home education for often ill children, thereby smoothing the boundaries between them and the children without deviations in health.
GEF. HIA in children
Based on the Standard, four types of training programs are possible . The definition of the desired option for students is based on the recommendations of the psychological-medical-pedagogical commission. For the successful implementation of the chosen program, special conditions necessary for a child with disabilities are taken into account. The transition from one variant to another is envisaged as the child develops. Such an action is possible if the following conditions are met: the statement of the parents, the wish of the child, the apparent positive dynamics in the training, the results of the PMPC, and the creation of the necessary conditions by the educational organization.
Development programs taking into account GEF
There are several curricula based on the Standard. The first option was created for children who were able to reach the required level of development by the time they enter the school and who can cooperate with their peers. In this case, students with HIA are trained on a par with healthy schoolchildren. The interpretation of this option is as follows: children study in the same environment, they are presented with basically the same requirements, at the end of the school all receive a document on education.
Children with disabilities who study under the first option have the right to pass different types of attestation in other forms. Special conditions are created in application to a particular category of student's health. The main educational program includes mandatory corrective work, which corrects the shortcomings in the development of the child.
The second type of program
Students with HIA, at school, who are trained in this option, are entitled to more prolonged periods. Several curricula are attached to the main program, taking into account the needs of the student with limitations in health. This option can be implemented both in the form of joint training with peers, and in individual groups or classes. An important role in the teaching is played by information technologies and special equipment, which expands the schoolchild's capabilities. The second option provides for compulsory works aimed at deepening and expanding the social experience of students with HIA.
The third type
Students with HIA who study in this option receive an education that is incomparable with that obtained by schoolchildren without disabilities. A prerequisite for the implementation of the curriculum is the creation of an adapted individual environment. Students with HIA together with the expert commission choose the forms of certification and terms of training. In this case, it is possible to carry out educational activities both in conjunction with peers, and in individual groups and special organizations.
The fourth type of development program
In this case, a student with multiple health disorders is trained on an adapted program, taking into account the individual plan. An indispensable condition is the formation of an environment in which, to a large extent, the realization of the life competency in the society takes place. The fourth option provides for home-based education, where the emphasis is on expanding within accessible limits social contacts and life experiences. To master the program, it is possible to use a networked form of interaction using different educational resources. Pupils who have successfully completed the training in this option are issued with a certificate of the established type.
Perspective can be considered those educational institutions that implement both basic programs and adapted to the needs of the child with HIA. Such organizations include inclusive classes, which allows children with disabilities to develop freely in society. Also in these schools there is a continuous work not only with children, but also with their parents, teachers.
Sport as a reliable assistant. Working programm
HIA (diagnosis) - this is not an excuse for reducing the motor activity of the child. The effectiveness of physical education in the development of children is an indisputable fact. Thanks to sports, working capacity, intellectual development, and health are increasing.
Exercises are selected individually or students are divided into groups depending on the categories of diseases. Classes begin with a warm-up, where children perform a number of simple movements under musical accompaniment. The preparatory part takes no more than 10 minutes. Next, you go to the main partition. In this part, exercises are carried out to strengthen the cardiovascular system, the muscles of the hands and feet, to develop coordination and others. The use of team games contributes to the successful functioning of communication skills, the "spirit of competition", the disclosure of their abilities. In the final part, the teacher proceeds to calm games and exercises, sums up the results of the work done.
The curriculum for any subject must necessarily correspond to the GEF. HIA children can be corrected by appropriate physical loads, because it's not a secret for anyone that, developing the body, you develop the mind.
The role of parents
A new approach to education