As in the construction of residential buildings, the technology of building baths are becoming more affordable and economical. The method of prefabricated erection of skeletons, in particular shield technology, is by far one of the most accessible ways of building a bath. This technology has many advantages, including speed of construction, reliability and financial accessibility. It would seem that, under such conditions, the prefabricated bath-house can simply not have the characteristics necessary for the reception of water-hygienic procedures. But in this respect the construction of such objects justifies itself. Moreover, the variety of projects of billboard baths opens a lot of opportunities for their endowment with additional functions. But to achieve the expected result can only be provided that an elaborate project was prepared, and serious mistakes were not made in the building itself.
How to choose a project?
There are several criteria for selecting a project. First of all, the sizes are estimated. The area should at least allow one person to wash cleanly. If it is assumed that several people will use the bath, then, accordingly, the area will increase, both in the steam room and in adjacent rooms. Modern projects of shield baths are designed taking into account the most diverse requirements of future owners. The technology of frame-building construction allows the implementation of complex projects with billiards, living rooms, functional rest rooms, etc. Of course, by default such baths have both steam rooms and dressing rooms. In addition, the choice should take into account the architectural and design originality of the project. The weak point of shield baths is their uniformity. The only way to avoid stereotyping is to order the development of a completely new project or to submit your drawings.
Installation of asbestos cement foundation
A small mass and modest overall dimensions of the shield baths allow building them on a columnar foundation. The simplest technology that can be used to perform the foundation is the foundation on asbestos-cement pipes. The latter should have a diameter of about 20 cm, and also be filled with a concrete mixture. Such a foundation allows the construction of shield baths on almost any soil. As a last resort, it is possible to envisage the installation of a bonded reinforcing mesh in the pipes. Work begins with drilling holes in the ground with a depth of 1-1.5 m, after which a reinforced concrete base is formed at the bottom like a small screed. Further, pipes are introduced into the ground, they are poured with mortar, sand and earth.
Foundation installation with removable formwork
For a panel bath, a formwork foundation of roofing sheet metal is also suitable. You can execute such a basis by following the instructions:
- A pipe is folded from the metal sheet, to which the handles of iron bars are subsequently welded.
- A pit is being prepared with a diameter slightly larger than the size of the pipe obtained.
- The formwork is inserted into the hole and adjusted in accordance with the level, after which sand is poured.
- At this stage, it is also possible to install a reinforcement grill, with which the shield baths strengthen. The testimonies indicate that such an enhancement saves the design from the effect of motions in the ground.
- A concrete solution is poured into the pipe - three buckets are enough.
- The formwork should be raised approximately 40 cm, using the built-in handles.
- The concrete mixture is poured again and the formwork is raised. These procedures should be performed alternately until the optimum level for the installation of the foundation is reached.
When the solution finally cracks, you can clean the formwork. Further construction of the panel bath can be performed after 15 days, previously covering the foundation with sacking or roofing material.
Preparation of the material for the frame
Further work will be directed to assembling the basic design of the panel bath. Even if the frame is assembled correctly, its material will not last long without proper treatment. Since the whole "skeleton" is assembled from wood, it requires appropriate impregnation with protective functions. The fact that the shield baths can also be subjected to rotting processes, infection with fungi, insects, etc. In order to protect the material from such phenomena, antiseptic agents should be used. This does not stop the preparation of wood. It should also be treated with means that increase the resistance of the material in front of the fire. In particular, for this use drugs from the group of fire retardants. Pillars for the foundation are recommended to be wrapped in layers of waterproofing, which will prevent the process of moisture absorption by the wood.
Installation of socle strapping
With the function of the plinth beam well cope with needles with a cross-section of at least 20 cm. The finished timber should be laid on the foundation columns along the entire perimeter. Then the material is connected at the corner points using the technique "in the half-timber". That is, in one of the bars it is necessary to form a groove for the groove in the upper part, and in the other - in the lower part. After completing all the corner joints, you need to carefully check the correct position of the strapping. Especially when the panel baths are built with their own hands, the likelihood of such errors increases. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately observe the levels in the vertical and horizontal, using a special tool - for example, a rule. You can level the posts with cement mortar or use an additional winding of the waterproofing in the form of ruberoid. Then you can use the anchors to fasten the beam to the foundation. Fixing elements should penetrate into the base by at least 10 cm.
Mounting of support racks
After the base plinth has been completed, it is possible to begin the installation of bearing supports. They should be located at the corners of the bath and at the points where the internal partitions are planned. The material is used the same, but the thickness at this time will be 10 cm. Fixing to the harness is desirable to be done by cutting or using metal corners. Sometimes on the shield baths attach the harness nagelami - in this case, it is enough to put the pillars on the outlets. Until the top harness is completed, the posts are fixed only in the lower part.
Mounting of the upper strapping
Further work can provoke deviation of the racks from the vertical, therefore it is necessary to establish safety time racks. They are mounted in the same way as the main bearing supports, only the bar can be used with an arbitrary cross-section. The upper strapping is performed by analogy with the plinth bars. It is attached using nails or special angles. Further, the ceiling supports are installed. The configuration in the installation of beams can be different. Usually the baths with the attic panelboard provide for the use of complex structures with additional reinforcement. Also, you should initially choose a strong and high-quality bar without defects, since the base for the attic must be reliable.
Sheathing of walls
To ensure that the panel bath maintains the optimum temperature regime, heat insulation must be laid between the support posts. It is cheaper to use foam for this purpose, but the minivate is safer from the ecological point of view. The skin itself can be different. For example, you can use an edging board or plywood. Further, the material is nailed to the posts with minimum gaps. Formed gaps should be filled with construction foam or podkopatit. With regard to decorative finishing, the paneled baths are usually decorated with block house or siding. In principle, both materials will provide effective isolation and create a favorable appearance of the structure. Inside the bath it is necessary to finish with a lining. In any case, there is no more suitable material for the steam room today.
Roof construction and coating
The technology of the construction of shield baths does not limit the builders in the choice of roof design. However, it is worth adjusting for climatic conditions. So, for northern regions experts advise to use gable structures, the angle of which is not less than 30 degrees. This will minimize the loads from the snow cover, which in winter time act on the shield baths. The reviews also show that light roofing is the best solution, since the load on the foundation and the rack is reduced. Therefore, from heavyweight shingles should be abandoned in favor of roll materials or corrugated board. Serious adjustments to the construction of the roof can make plans for the use of the attic as a dwelling. In this case, it is justified to use tiles as a material with high thermal insulation properties.