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General characteristics of the organization. Basic concept and features

Different organizations participate in the life of any society. They are created for different purposes. But they are all called upon to provide material or spiritual benefits to a person, to provide services.

Activities in such social units are so diverse that it is difficult even to list them. It can be an enterprise that produces all kinds of products, the establishment of a budgetary sphere (school, hospital, etc.). It can also be a club or party where people gather to freely express their views, communicate with like-minded people. The characteristics of the organization make it possible to understand the type of its activity, what all structural units have in common. Man is a social being. Therefore, this type of communication, as an organization, we just need.

General concept

To understand the basic characteristics of an organization, it is first necessary to learn the definition of this social unit. The word organize comes from the Latin language. In translation it means "I inform", "I arrange". This is a kind of social system in which a certain group of people gather together to achieve a specific goal. Their thoughts, opinions, actions they implement according to certain rules and laws.

This form of communication of people is the primary unit of society. The organization acts both as an object and as a subject of society. Its boundaries are determined by the sphere of activity in which its goals are achieved. This community of people can consist of several structural elements, and also be part of an even larger common group.


Characteristics of the organization includes a number of features. It should be said that this is an open system. This is because any organization interacts with the rest of society. For this, three actions are implemented within it. Initially, this isolated unit consumes, accumulates the necessary resources from the external environment. It can be raw materials, materials, information, etc. Then the attracted resources are processed inside the organization. Products are produced, services are provided, certain views are formed, and so on.

This characteristic of the organization has its logical conclusion. This is the return on resources. In the external environment, this social category directs the result of its activities. Moreover, the enterprise does this with the aim of obtaining economic benefits. The service industry also sometimes has a profit goal, but there are also those organizations that were originally created to provide services for themselves. This is their purpose of activity. Some associations await the final result in obtaining spiritual values. It all depends on the views and beliefs of the community.

Two views on the definition

General characteristics of the organization should be given on the basis of the definition of this form of uniting people. It can be understood in two senses. The first approach regards the organization as a system of interconnected parts of one whole. The internal orderliness of the whole group is ensured by common goals and laws of behavior. The second approach defines the organization as the process of all actions aimed at the formation of specific links. The essence of this view is to increase the quantity and quality of communications for some time. This process takes place in a certain space. For the functioning of such a system or process, people are guided by both creative inspiration and well-regulated rules and norms.

Main Features

There are several signs that determine the generality of people. This is a characteristic of the organization. Enterprises, institutions, clubs and so on have a number of common distinctive features. These include the availability of resources, openness to the external environment, horizontal division of responsibilities. Also, one of the main characteristics is the structure (presence of units, several participants). This includes the vertical division of responsibilities and the need for management.

Resources are the first criterion that a characteristic of an organization has. An example can be cited in the process of industrial production. In order for a company to produce products, it needs materials, equipment, technology, etc. From this criterion, the following immediately emerges: since organizations need resources, they have to interact with the environment.

Performing its functions, the company organizes the work of all units, each of which does its work.


The general characteristic of the organization reveals the principles of the flow of all its internal and external processes. To be able to work to achieve their goals, a group of people must take all the action deliberately. Coordinating and executing bodies are appointed for this purpose. The managers make decisions about the direction of their activities.

Performers must implement this plan in accordance with their clearly defined responsibilities. And they must do this work qualitatively and in full. So any organization functions. This makes it possible to achieve the set goals with a high degree of probability.

Objectives of the company

Each organization, as already said, is going to realize its goals. This is the main reference point, to which a specific set of people is directed. For example, the economic characteristics of an organization are always given on the basis of an indicator such as net profit. To say how the whole system worked, this criterion can.

But there are organizations with other goals. For example, the school seeks to prepare the greatest number of excellent students, to give the highest level of education. Goals can be intermediate, gradually leading a group of people to one common solution to the global task. Without aspiration, movement, no company of people can exist.


To reach their goal, the community of people must solve a number of problems. These are steps on the way to the main result. The characteristic of the organization assumes carrying out of all process of activity under the certain scheme. For successful work, you must first create, think through a mission. It should not be abstract. To achieve this, an action plan is created. Goals are divided into tasks, in the solution of which you can achieve the desired result.

Further, managers and executors are informed about their duties. To enable them to perform their functions, all communications between structural divisions are being considered, technologies, norms and standards of behavior are being developed. Then the organization absorbs the necessary resources. The entire system fulfills the tasks assigned to it, moving towards the ultimate goal. Only complex actions, coordination and control help to achieve the goal. The characteristic of the organization depends entirely on this criterion.

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