One of the main norms for creating rational working conditions at enterprises is lighting. Incorrect distribution or insufficient amount of this factor can cause fatigue of workers, which leads to a drop in efficiency. The subdivision of industrial lighting can be divided into several different categories. First of all, the distribution depends on the radiation source and is divided into:
This industrial lighting is provided by a natural light source - solar beams, as well as scattered in the atmosphere with other light streams. It is the most favorable option, because the human eye is more adapted to such a source of light. As for industrial premises, natural lighting in them can be carried out in the following ways:
- Upper - the flow of flows is due to the light in the ceilings;
- Lateral - light penetrates into the room from window openings;
- Mixed - combines both previous methods.
Lighting of industrial premises with only a natural view is not able to create the level of illumination that is necessary, because it has a number of drawbacks.
- Change in weather conditions - high cloudiness or precipitation, as well as the dark time of the day, make work conditions much more difficult.
- A certain arrangement of the openings, due to the construction of the building, can not ensure the uniformity of light penetration.
- Direct sunlight can be caused by blinding, which is unacceptable in terms of safety.
Disadvantages of natural light sources are replenished with artificial lighting, which can be used in two systems:
- General, the main task of which is to illuminate completely the whole room;
- Combined - general and local lighting are combined in this system. The second carries a function of the purposefulness of the light flux to workplaces or certain mechanisms and parts of the equipment.
Important! Lighting of industrial buildings only due to artificial species is unacceptable.
Artificial lighting according to purpose is divided into:
- Working. It is necessary to ensure a continuous process. Applicable when there is a lack of natural light or lack of natural light.
- Emergency. The presence of this species should be provided in case of sudden stopping of the mechanisms caused by:
- Continuous violation of the process technology;
- An emergency situation (explosion, fire, mass poisoning);
- Occurrence of danger of traumatism in places of congestion of people;
- Interruptions in the operation of life support facilities - pumping stations, power plants, dispatching, ventilation systems, firemen's duty posts and many others, the availability of which depends on the features of production.
Also, such coverage should be provided in case of evacuation of people, it should be located:
- On the territory of workshops, in which the number of workers is more than 100 people;
- On ladders and passageways, which are provided for evacuation;
- In production rooms in which interruption of working illumination can injure workers;
- In dangerous places for the passage of people.
Emergency lighting should have an individual connection to the power supply, independent of the worker. This is necessary in order to ensure timely activation when the operating voltage is suddenly disconnected.
Sources of artificial lighting
- All known incandescent lamps, they are sources of thermal radiation. Such lamps have limited use in production, as they distort the color perception. But still find their use due to the ease of connection and operation under various environmental influences.
- Luminescent lamps - the luminescence arises due to an electrical discharge that occurs in gases or vapors. Such lamps are subdivided into several types depending on the pressure and the internal environment used. The use of gas-discharge lamps is due to several parameters:
- Economy, which is due to lower power consumption;
- No thermal radiation from the light source;
- Uniform distribution of light fluxes in all illuminated areas;
- High luminous efficiency;
- Close to the natural light spectrum.
The industrial lighting in which such lamps are used has, of course, drawbacks:
- Optimal temperature operation from 15ºC to 25ºC;
- Limited use in explosive areas;
- Blinding effect;
- Noise from the chokes.
LED lamp. The use of them is becoming more relevant lately. Industrial LED lighting has several advantages over fluorescent and incandescent lamps:
- Economical power consumption;
- Resistance to voltage drops;
- High degree of protection from moisture and heat;
- The possibility of using explosives at production facilities;
- Minimized pulsation;
- Natural color transfer;
- Long service life cancels the constant replacement of lamps;
- Environmental friendliness.
Industrial artificial light can only be used in combination with the local in production areas. Use it as a single option is possible only if it is stipulated by the norms of the technological process. This applies mainly to laboratory facilities in which it is important to observe a particular microclimate.
- Maintain within the norm of gloss. This is an increased brightness of surfaces, which leads to impaired vision.
- Uniformity in the distribution of brightness. Failure to comply with this parameter causes fatigue and reduces efficiency. It is characterized by the coefficient of unevenness, which is determined by the ratio of the illumination of the maximum value to the minimum value.
- Limitation of shadows, the presence of which leads to sharp changes in brightness. The greatest danger to the human eye is the moving shadows.
- Maximum prevention of fluctuations in luminous flux. They can be caused by voltage fluctuations in the network or by flickering of gas-discharge lamps.
Lighting, industrial, outdoor
All of the above types refer to the internal premises. But outdoor lighting is very important in production areas. It ensures good safety and protection of adjacent areas of industrial buildings. For outdoor lighting, you can use any light source. But considering that they need to work productively all the dark time of the day, first comes the question of economy and good light output. Of course, the priority option will be LED lighting.
There are special recommendations for the use of outdoor lighting :
- Lighting industrial street must have a separate wire connection system.
- The coefficient of uneven illumination of industrial areas of road and railway entrances should not exceed 15.
- To limit the glare action, the height of the luminaire should be provided in accordance with the regulations.